Tag Archives: Cardinal Jean-Marie Villot

The Next Conclave — Those That Will Officiate

by Anura Guruge

Four Related Articles: 1. Over 80 Rule 2. Dean may be excluded
3. Camerlengo and The Major Penitentiary

4. Precedence Among Cardinal Bishops

This is the fourth (and hopefully last) article in a series about those that can participate in the next conclave — promoted by the London Times howler on May 10, 2010 that talked about Cardinal Sodano, as the Dean, attending the next conclave — though he is already 82, and thus two years over the mandatory, inviolable 80 year cut-off for conclave participation.

Please refer to the three articles referenced above for more details on conclave participating, role delegation and rules of precedence.

This is the list of the ‘Officers,’ both cardinals and non-cardinals, that will officiate at the next conclave (if it were to be held in the ‘near’ future with 80 denoting 80-year cut-off.]

CARDINALS:
1. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. 80, NOT-deputizable.
College of Cardinals will have to elect a new, but interim, Camerlengo.
—-current: Italian Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone [b. Dec. 2, 1934], 75.
Can participate and do so for the next 5 years.

2. Dean of the College of Cardinals. 80, Deputizable by Vice-Dean
(or next most senior Cardinal Bishop)
—-current: Italian Cardinal Angelo Sodano [b. Nov. 23, 1927], 82.
Cannot participate.

3. Vice Dean of the College of Cardinals. 80, Deputizable by senior most Cardinal Bishop present
—-current: French Cardinal Roger
Etchegaray [b. Sep. 25, 1922], 87.
Cannot participate.

4. Senior most Cardinal Bishop (after Vice-Dean). 80, Deputizable by next in line per precedence … even if it is the senior most Cardinal Priest present
—-current: Italian Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re
[b. Jan. 30, 1934], 76.
Can participate and do so for the next 4 years.
[Earlier confusion as to whether Cardinal Re actually was the most senior had to do with a hitherto undetected translation error in the 1914 Catholic Encyclopedia! Please read << this >>]

5. Senior most Cardinal Priest. 80, Deputizable by next in line per precedence within the order of Cardinal Priests
[in contrast to the case with Cardinal Bishops, it is impossible to envisage a conclave with no Cardinal Priests.]

—-current: Brazilian Cardinal Eugênio de Araújo Sales [b. Nov. 8, 1920], 89.
Cannot participate.

At present the senior most Cardinal Priest under 80 is Belgium Cardinal Godfried Danneels [b. June 4, 1933]. << Thanks Marko >>

6. Senior most Cardinal Deacon. 80, Deputizable by next in line per precedence within the order of Cardinal Deacons
[though improbable, in theory, it would be possible to have a conclave with no Cardinal Deacons in attendance. If this ever happened, the junior most cardinal priest would have to perform the roles expected of the senior most Cardinal Deacon]

—-current: Italian Cardinal Agostino Cacciavillan [b. Aug. 4, 1926], 83.
Cannot participate.

At present the senior most Cardinal Deacon under 80 is Italian Cardinal Sergio Sebastiani [b. Apr. 11, 1931].  << Thanks Marko >>
—-


MAJOR PENITENTIARY
Is not always a cardinal — as is the case right now. Not permitted within the conclave unless he is an under-80 cardinal.
If post is vacant prior to or if the incumbent dies during the sede vacante the College of Cardinals via a secret ballot will elect one of their own as the interim Major Penitentiary. It does not stipulate that they have to elect one who is under-80. If the incumbent dies during the conclave, the cardinal electors, in conclave, will, most likely, elect one of their own as the stand-in.

1. Major Penitentiary.
80, NOT-Deputizable. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Archbishop Fortunato Baldelli
[b. Aug. 6, 1935].
Cannot participate since he is NOT a cardinal.
—–


VICARS GENERAL & CARDINAL ARCHPRIEST, VATICAN BASILICA
The Cardinal Vicar General of Rome, the Cardinal Vicar General for Vatican City and the Cardinal Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica retain their posts during the sede vacante.
Upon being notified by the Camerlengo, the Cardinal Vicar General of Rome has the responsibility of informing the people of Rome as to the
sede vacante.
None of these three, however, have any specific duties to perform within a conclave.
If there is no Vicar General of Rome during the
sede vacante his duties will automatically be performed by the Vice-Vicar, i.e., the Vicegerent. If there is no Vicegerent, then the senior most auxiliary bishop of Rome steps in.
The Apostolic Constitution, Universi Dominici Gregis, does not specify what needs to be done if there is no Vicar General for Vatican City or a Cardinal Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. One assumes that a non-cardinal deputy will do the needful until a replacement is appointed by the new pope.

The pope can appoint non-cardinals to all three of these posts. Vicar General of Vatican City may also be Archpriest of the Basilica.

1. Vicar General of Rome. 80, Deputizable from within the see of Rome. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Cardinal Agostino Vallini [b. Apr. 17, 1940]. 70

Can participate and do so for the next ten years.

2. Vicar General for Vatican City. 80, Deputizable from within the Vatican City hierarchy. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Cardinal Angelo Comastri
[b. Sep. 14, 1943], 66.
Can participate and do so for the next fourteen years.

3. Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. 80, Deputizable from within the Vatican City or Basilica hierarchy. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Cardinal Angelo Comastri [b. Sep. 14, 1943], 66. << same as above >>
Can participate and do so for the next fourteen years.


NON-CARDINALS

These officials are required to participate within the conclave, BUT since they are not cardinals they cannot vote nor be in the Sistine Chapel when ballots are being cast.
Since they are not cardinals, and as such non-electors, their age is immaterial.


1. Secretary of the College of Cardinals. If needed, a temporary deputy will be appointed by the College, if needed
—-current: Italian Archbishop Manuel Monteiro de Castro
.
Cannot cast any votes or be in the Sistine Chapel when the electors are voting.

2. Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations. If needed, a temporary deputy will be appointed by the College, most likely from within the Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff
—-current: Italian Monsignor Guido Marini
.
[He is not related to his predecessor, Piero Marini who held this post from 1997 to 2007]

Cannot cast any votes or be in the Sistine Chapel when the electors are voting.


There are a few others that attend, such as two Masters of Ceremonies, an assistant to the ‘Dean,’ a contingent of Confessors etc., but these are not ‘officers’ per se and are chosen prior to the conclave. Thus their names are not known ahead of a conclave.

The Next Conclave — The Camerlengo and The Major Penitentiary

by Anura Guruge

Related Articles: 1. Over 80 Rule &    2. Dean may be excluded

This is the third article in a series about those that can participate in the next conclave — promoted by the London Times blooper that had Cardinal Sodano, as the Dean, attending the next conclave — though he is already 82, and thus two years over the mandatory, inviolable 80 year cut-off for conclave participation.

If the Dean of the College, the Vice Dean, the senior most Cardinal Priest or the senior most Cardinal Deacon cannot participate in a conclave, the senior most of that ‘order’ automatically deputizes for the absent member without incident. This has already happened since the 80 year cut-off rule came into play as of January 1971 — in particular during the two 1978 conclaves.

There are, however, two exceptions that have to be considered, the Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and the Major Penitentiary. Both of specific duties that have to be performed right through the sede vacante — with it being imperative that the Camerlengo is present within the conclave since he has to head up the Particular Congregations held within the conclave to handle ad hoc logisticsal and procedural issues.

The Camerlengo
The Camerlengo is essentially the master of ceremonies during the sede vacante. Conclave protocol requires the camerlengo to be present within the conclave to mastermind and handle certain procedural issues — e.g., whether the electors can take a break between the two ballots that make up a session etc.

The rules are also such that the 80 year cut-off will still apply to the Camerlengo.

Hence, the modern practice is that the Camerlengo will resign when he turns 80. Spanish Cardinal Eduardo Somalo, who was the Camerlengo at the 2005 conclave, resigned on April 4, 2007 — 4 days after his 80th birthday. The prior Camerlengo, Italian Cardinal Sebastiano Baggio, died a couple of months short of his 80th birthday. The one before that, Cardinal Bertoli resigned at 77 while his predecessor, the storied Cardinal Jean-Marie Villot died at 73 a year after his gallant efforts acting as Camerlengo in both of the 1978 conclaves.

The current Camerlengo is Italian Cardinal Bertone who is currently 75 (b. December 2, 1934).

If a Camerlengo had turned 80 prior to the sede vacante, he would have to resign prior to the conclave. The College of Cardinals will then elect, via secret ballot, one of the cardinal electors, to act as an interim Camerlengo — to serve until the election of the new pope. The Apostolic Constitution, Universi Dominici Gregis, already has a provision to handle this.

There is a Vice-Camerlengo. But, the Vice-Camerlengo is not a cardinal. He is a member of the Apotolic Camera that administers papal finances. Given that he is not a cardinal, the Vice-Camerlengo cannot deputize for the Camerlengo per se during the sede vacante or within the conclave. Since only a pope can creates cardinals, the Vice-Camerlengo cannot be promoted during a sede vacante.

The Major Penitentiary
The Church requires a Major Penitentiary to be available at all times to mediate in matters of mercy.

Though the Major Penitentiary is usually a cardinal, this does not always have to be the case. Right now the Major Penitentiary, or to be precise the Pro-Major Penitentiary, Fortunato Baldelli, is not a cardinal.  Thus, if there was to be a conclave he would not be attending. This also tells us that unlike with the Camerlengo it is not imperative that the Major Penitentiary is present at the conclave.

In theory, the Major Penitentiary as the head of curial dicastery must tender his resignation at 75 — though a pope can continue to retain him in that job as long as he wants, irrespective of age. [A Camerlengo, though usually the head of the Apostolic Camera, can be a camerlengo without heading up a curial dicastery. Thus, the 75 year rule does not apply to that poet.]

If the Major Penitentiary is over 80 at the start of the sede vacante, it would appear that he could continue to serve until the new pope is elected — though he will not be able to participate in the conclave. In this respect it would be the same as having a non-cardinal Major Penitentiary.

However, if something happens to the Major Penitentiary just prior to or during the sede vacante it is incumbent on the College of Cardinals to promptly elect a new one, via secret ballot. In this instance, the new Major Penitentiary has to be a cardinal — thought it does not stipulate that he has to be a cardinal elector [i.e., under 80]

*********

The secret ballots used to elect a Camerlengo or Major Penitentiary during the sede vacante are not contingent on an absolute majority, as is the case with electing the pope. However gets the most votes wins. If there is a tie, the senior most cardinal, in terms of precedence within the College, gets the nod. All cardinals, irrespective of age, can vote in these elections if they take place outside the conclave. If the ballot has to be conducted within the conclave, for example if the Camerlengo dies during a conclave, only the cardinal electors will be able to participate since the older cardinals will be cut-off from them.