Tag Archives: Adrianus Johannes Simonis

U.S. Cardinal John Patrick Foley, 76, Known To Have Been Ill, Dies. College Down To 192, Electors Down To 109

Anura Guruge, laughing, picture November 16, 2011.

U.S. Cardinal Deacon John Patrick Foley. R.I.P.


by Anura Guruge

That U.S. Cardinal Deacon John Patrick Foley [dob: Nov. 11, 1935] was very sick, with leukemia, and was returning from Rome to take up residence at the Villa St. Joseph, in Darby, PA, a convalescent home for Catholic Clerics was known as of February of this year. His resignation, as the Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher, submitted to the pope on February 8, 2011 was accepted on August 29. Please read the August 29 post for details of his atypical career.

The College is now down to 192,  and the electors are now down to 109.

The last time we were at 111 electors was on March 20, 2010.

We have lost 12 electors since the start of the year, but the College is still plenty big enough to elect the next pope.

Cardinal Foley is the 9th cardinal to die this year and the 2nd cardinal elector (the other having been German Cardinal Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky, on June 30, who was 75). Both of these are above the norm. Check this post.

The recent average for the number of cardinals dying per year is 7.5. We didn’t have a single cardinal elector die in 2010 or 2009. We have to go back to 2007 to have two electors die in the same year. To compound matters the first death of 2011 did not occur until April 1. That is late. So these deaths have occurred in a more compressed time frame. Despite the two electors, the average age of the cardinals to die this year was 84 years. That is below the normal for the past decade.

The prior cardinal to die was John Paul II’s (#265) friend and compatriot, 87-year old Polish Cardinal Priest Andrzej Maria Deskur on September 3rd.

We have had 13 cardinals retire in 2011.

The Next Pope 2011 book by Anura Guruge


As of December 11, 2011, there are 109 cardinal electors with 83 no longer able to participate in a conclave.
[The electors represent 57% of cardinals.]

**********
The College as of December 11, 2011 is at 192.


Please CLICK on image to ENLARGE.

Summary of Major Changes in the Last 12 Months

December 11, 2011: U.S. Cardinal Deacon John Patrick Foley, 76, dies.
** College down to 192, electors down to 109 **

December 7, 2011: South Korean Cardinal Cheong Jin-suk Turns 80. Mexican Cardinal Priest Juan Sandoval Íñiguez, 78, retires.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 110 **

November 26, 2011: Dutch Cardinal Adrianus Johannes Simonis Turns 80.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 111 **

November 21, 2011: The Fugitive gets the boot. Now, finally retired.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 112 **

November 4, 2011: The Fugitive turns 80.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 112 **

October 13, 2011: 79-Year Old Filipino Cardinal Priest Gaudencio Borbon Rosales retires.
** College continues at 193, electors continue at 113 **

October 2, 2011: 76-Year Old Italian Cardinal Deacon Giovanni Lajolo Retires.
** College continues at 193, electors continue at 113 **

September 24, 2011: Zambian Cardinal Priest Medardo Joseph Mazombwe Turns 80.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 113 **

September 21, 2011: 76-year Old Italian Curial Cardinal Deacon Velasio De Paolis Retires from the Curia. ** College continues at 193, electors remain at 114 **

September 3, 2011: 87-year Old Polish Cardinal Priest Andrzej Maria Deskur Dies.
** College down to 193, electors 114 **

August 29, 2011: US Cardinal Deacon John Patrick Foley retires at 75.
** College continues at 194, electors 114 **

August 26, 2011: Canadian Cardinal Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic dies at the age of 81.
** College Down to 194, electors 114 **

July 25, 2011: Italian Cardinal Virgilio Noè Dies at the age of 89.
** College Down to 195, electors 114 **

July 21, 2011: Belarusian Cardinal Kazimierz Świątek Dies at the age of 96.
** College Down to 196, electors 114 **

July 19, 2011: US Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali Retires as Archbishop of Philadelphia.
** College continues at 197, electors 114 **

June 30, 2011: German Cardinal Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky dies, aged 75.
** College down to 197, electors = 114 **

June 28, 2011: Italian Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi retires as Archbishop of Milan at 77. ** College continues at 198, electors = 115 **

May 10, 2011: Indian Cardinal Priest Ivan Dias retires from the curia, at 75. ** College continues at 198, electors = 115 **

May 2, 2011: Spanish Cardinal Priest Agustín García-Gasco Vicente Dies on May 1, 2011. ** College at 198, electors = 115 **

April 19, 2011: Italian Cardinal Priest Giovanni Saldarini Dies on April 18, 2011 aged 86. ** College at 199, electors = 115 **

April 11, 2011: Italian Cardinal Priest Sergio Sebastiani Turns 80 and ceases to be an elector. ** College at 200, electors = 115 **

April 1, 2011: Indian Cardinal Priest Varkey Vithayathil Dies. FIRST death of 2011. ** College at 200, electors = 116 **

March 4, 2011: US Cardinal Priest William Henry Keeler turns 80 and ceases to be an elector. ** College continues at 201, electors = 116 **

February 27, 2011: [Resignation valid as of March 1, 2011] U.S. cardinal priest Roger Mahony retired from being Archbishop of L.A. on the very day he turned 75. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 26, 2011: 90 Year Old, Cardinal Patriarch Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir, Patriarch of Antiochia of the Maronites retires. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 24, 2011: German cardinal priest Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky retired from being Archbishop of Berlin on turning 75. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 21, 2011: 6 cardinal deacons created in 2001 receive jus optionis promotion to cardinal priests. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 19, 2011: Italian Cardinal Carmillo Runi ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 12, 2011: Spanish Cardinal Agustín García-Gasco Vicente ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 118 **

February 10, 2011: Ukrainian Cardinal, Lubomyr Husar retired. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 119 **

February 6, 2011: Filipino Cardinal Ricardo Jamin Vidal ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 119 **

January 26, 2011: French Cardinal Bernard Panafieu ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 120 **

January 12, 2011: Brazilian Cardinal Geraldo Majella Agnelo Retires. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 121 **

January 4, 2011: Curial, Slovenian Cardinal Franc Rodé Retires. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 121 **

◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2011 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

December 15, 2010: Chilean Cardinal Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa Retires. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 121 **

December 2, 2010: 80 year old Italian cardinal priest, Michele Giordano dies. ** The College now at 201, electors = 121 **

November 22, 2010: 90 year old Spanish Cardinal Urbano Navarrete Cortés, S.J., dies. ** The College now at 202, electors = 121 **

November 20, 2010: Cardinal creating consistory at which 24 cardinals, 20 electors were created. ** The College now at 203, electors = 121 **

November 14, 2010: Latvian Cardinal Priest Jānis Pujats turned 80 and ceased to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179, electors = 101 **

October 15, 2010: Philippines Cardinal Priest Ricardo Jamin Vidal retires. But still an elector. ** The College continues at 179, electors = 102 **

October 15, 2010: Cameroon Cardinal Priest Christian Wyghan Tumi of Cameroon Turned 80 and thus ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors = 102 **

October 11, 2010: Italian Cardinal Priest Severino Poletto retires. But still an elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 103 (no change) **

October 7, 2010: Brazilian Cardinal Priest Cláudio Hummes, O.F. M. and German Cardinal Deacon Paul Josef Cordes retire. But are still electors. ** The College continues at 179; electors = 103 (no change) **

October 2, 2010: Guatemalan Cardinal Priset Rodolfo Quezada Toruño retires but is still an elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 103 (no change) **

September 26, 2010: Italian Cardinal Priest Michele Giordano turned 80, thus ceasing to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 103 **

September 18, 2010: Syrian, Oriental Rites Cardinal Bishop Ignace Moussa I Daoud turned 80, thus ceasing to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 104 **

September 6, 2010: Italian Cardinal Priest Salvatore De Giorgi turned 80, thus ceasing to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 105 **

August 30, 2010: French Cardinal Priest Paul Poupard turned 80 and ceased to be a cardinal elector. ** The College is still at 179; electors= 106 **

July 8, 2010: Colombian Cardinal Pedro Rubiano Sáenz retires as Archbishop of Bogotá. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 107 **

July 7, 2010: U.S. Cardinal Theodore Edgar McCarrick, on turning 80, ceased to be an elector. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 107 **

July 1, 2010: German Cardinal Walter Kasper, retires as the President, Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

June 30, 2010: Italian Cardinal Bishop Giovanni Battista Re, retires as the Prefect, Congregation for Bishops and is replaced by Canadian Cardinal Marc Ouellet, my #3 papabili from 2009. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

June 28, 2010: Indonesian Cardinal Jiulius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, retires as the Archbishop of Jakarta. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

June 19, 2010: Latvian Cardinal Janis Pujats, retires as the Archbishop of Riga. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

May 4, 2010: Italian Cardinal Luigi Poggi , at one time the archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church, died at the age of 92. ** The College now = 179; electors = 108 **

April 30, 2010: German Cardinal Paul Augustin Mayer, a Benedictine, died at the age of 98, twenty three days prior to turning 99. ** The College then = 180 **

April 16, 2010: Czechoslovakian Cardinal Tomáš Špidlík, a Jesuit, died at the age of 90. ** The College then = 181 **

March 31, 2010: Spanish Cardinal Julián Herranz Casado, Opus Dei, on turning 80 ceased to be an elector. We then had 108 electors. Julián Herranz Casado (b. March 31, 1930) of Spain, the retired President of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of the Legislative Texts and President of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia turned 80 and thus ceased to be an elector. Spain has 10 cardinals, but only half of them are now eligible to vote. That still gives them a slight edge in terms of real representation. With 5 out of the 108 electors, Spain would a 4.6% representation if there were to be a conclave anytime soon. However, in terms of the world population of Catholics, Spain only has about 3.9%. So they can’t really complain, even though they probably will. Brazil with 3 times more Catholics has one less elector. Mexico with nearly twice more also only has 4 electors. The electors within the College does not reflect the population distribution of the Catholics. The U.S. and Europe gets preferential representation. This needs to be fixed at some point. <<q.v. Pages 7 to 11 of ‘The Next Pope’ book (for free, of course) at Google Books.>> ** College then = 182 **

March 20, 2010: NZ Cardinal Thomas Stafford on turning 80 ceased to be an elector. We then had 109 electors. NZ no longer has a vote if there was to be a conclave. ‘Oceania,’ [i.e., the Pacific basin] now only has one elector, viz. Australian Cardinal George Pell (b. 1941) who was created a cardinal in 2005. It is just like the ‘old days.’ The October 1958 conclave that elected John XXIII (#262) was the first conclave attended by a cardinal from Oceania, Australia’s Norman Thomas Gilroy. <<q.v. Pages 116 & 261 of ‘The Next Pope’ (for free, of course) at Google Books.>> ** College then = 182 **

March 18, 2010: US Cardinal Adam Joseph Maida on turning 80 ceased to be an elector. We then had 110 electors. ** College then = 182 **

February 13, 2010: Cardinal Miloslav Vlk retired from being an Archbishop — but is still a bona fide elector. His resignation is per Code of Canon Law 401 § 1 requiring that diocesan bishops tender their resignation to the pope when they have completed their 75th year. ** College then = 182 **

January 27, 2010: Cardinal Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic on turning 80 became a non-elector. Canada has a total of 3 cardinals, two of whom are still electors; one of them, Cardinal Marc Ouellet a credible papabile. ** College then = 182 **

January 18, 2010: 76 year old Belgium Cardinal Godfried Danneels retired from being the Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels. This did not alter the elector/non-elector numbers or the size of the College. Just changes the statistics as to the ‘occupations’ of the cardinals. ** College then = 182 **

January 10, 2010: Cardinal Armand Gaétan Razafindratandra, of Madagascar, Archbishop Emeritus of Antananarivo, died unexpectedly having had a fall while taking a walk. He had turned 84 last August.
** College then = 182 **

December 31, 2009: Cardinal Cahal Brendan Daly, of Ireland, Archbishop Emeritus of Armagh, died late in the day on Decmeber 31, 2009. He had turned 92 in October. ** College then = 183 **

December 30, 2009: Japanese Cardinal Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi, who had turned 81 this past June, died unexpectedly, in Tokyo. ** College then = 184 **

December 18, 2009: Cardinal Józef Glemp of Poland, created a cardinal by his compatriot in 1983, turned 80. He thus ceased to be an elector. That reduced the number of electors. ** College then = 185 **

November 17, 2009: Cardinal Christian Wiyghan Tumi of Cameroon, at 79, retired as the Archbishop of Douala. ** College then = 185 **

The Rationale for these Demographics

Following my “Next Pope — Papabili List for 2009,” I had some questions as to the amount of sway the curial cardinals would have at the next conclave. So I did some analysis on the composition of the current College beyond just age and nationalities. This is an ongoing effort to keep the data that I found up to-date. I also used these stats when writing my ‘The Next Pope – After Pope Benedict XVIbook.

Hope this helps. All the best.

South Korean Cardinal Cheong Jin-suk Turns 80. Sandoval Íñiguez Retires. College Remains at 193, Electors Down To 110

Anura Guruge, laughing, picture November 16, 2011.

South Korean Cardinal Cardinal Nicholas Cheong Jin-suk
South Korean Cardinal Cardinal Nicholas Cheong Jin-suk


by Anura Guruge

On December 7, 2011, [Pearl Harbor Day], South Korean CardinalNicholas Cheong Jin-suk [dob: Dec. 7, 1931], turned 80 and thus ceased to be an elector. Despite his age, he continues as the Metropolitan Archbishop of Seoul, the bishopric he has held since April 1998. He was created a cardinal in March 2006.

With his ‘aging-out’, South Korea, where 46.5% of the 48.8 Million population profess not to have a religion, and at most only 10.9% of the population is Catholic, loses its only cardinal elector — Cheong Jin’suk being the only cardinal from this country. What is interesting is that just 11 days ago we saw the same thing happening to the Netherlands, another rather secular country; i.e., its one and only cardinal becoming a non-elector. Again, as with the Dutch, I doubt whether we will see much hand-wringing on part of the South Koreans begging the Vatican for a cardinal elector.

Seoul, the Cardinal's domain, in South Korea

This will be the one and only cardinal to turn 80 in December 2011. The prior ‘aging out’ was on November 26, 2011. This is the 10th and last cardinal to ‘age out’ this year. Hence, any other changes to the core demographics of the College during the remainder of this year will be due to deaths or ‘resignations’. [Yes, I live in eternal hope.]

The College continues at 193. But, the electors are now down to 110.

Juan Sandoval Íñiguez

Later this same day, the Vatican announced that the pope has accepted the resignation of 78-year old, controversial Mexican Cardinal Priest Juan Sandoval Íñiguez [dob: Mar. 28, 1933], as the Archbishop of Guadalajara — a post he had held since 1994. He was 3.5 years past the nominal 75-year retirement age prescribed in Canon 401§1 of the 1983 Code. Created in November 1994 he has been an outspoken conservative who has famously said: ‘To be a protestant, one cannot have any shame‘ and likes to refer to gay men by the term ‘maricón‘.

The last time we were at 111 electors was on March 18, 2010.

We have lost 11 electors since the start of the year, but the College is still plenty big enough to elect the next pope.

We have had 13 cardinals retire in 2011.

The Next Pope 2011 book by Anura Guruge


As of December 7, 2011, there are 110 cardinal electors with 83 no longer able to participate in a conclave.
[The electors represent 57% of cardinals.]

**********
The College as of September 3, 2011 is at 193.


Please CLICK on image to ENLARGE.

Summary of Major Changes in the Last 12 Months

December 7, 2011: South Korean Cardinal Cheong Jin-suk Turns 80. Mexican Cardinal Priest Juan Sandoval Íñiguez, 78, retires.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 110 **

November 26, 2011: Dutch Cardinal Adrianus Johannes Simonis Turns 80.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 111 **

November 21, 2011: The Fugitive gets the boot. Now, finally retired.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 112 **

November 4, 2011: The Fugitive turns 80.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 112 **

October 13, 2011: 79-Year Old Filipino Cardinal Priest Gaudencio Borbon Rosales retires.
** College continues at 193, electors continue at 113 **

October 2, 2011: 76-Year Old Italian Cardinal Deacon Giovanni Lajolo Retires.
** College continues at 193, electors continue at 113 **

September 24, 2011: Zambian Cardinal Priest Medardo Joseph Mazombwe Turns 80.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 113 **

September 21, 2011: 76-year Old Italian Curial Cardinal Deacon Velasio De Paolis Retires from the Curia. ** College continues at 193, electors remain at 114 **

September 3, 2011: 87-year Old Polish Cardinal Priest Andrzej Maria Deskur Dies.
** College down to 193, electors 114 **

August 29, 2011: US Cardinal Deacon John Patrick Foley retires at 75.
** College continues at 194, electors 114 **

August 26, 2011: Canadian Cardinal Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic dies at the age of 81.
** College Down to 194, electors 114 **

July 25, 2011: Italian Cardinal Virgilio Noè Dies at the age of 89.
** College Down to 195, electors 114 **

July 21, 2011: Belarusian Cardinal Kazimierz Świątek Dies at the age of 96.
** College Down to 196, electors 114 **

July 19, 2011: US Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali Retires as Archbishop of Philadelphia.
** College continues at 197, electors 114 **

June 30, 2011: German Cardinal Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky dies, aged 75.
** College down to 197, electors = 114 **

June 28, 2011: Italian Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi retires as Archbishop of Milan at 77. ** College continues at 198, electors = 115 **

May 10, 2011: Indian Cardinal Priest Ivan Dias retires from the curia, at 75. ** College continues at 198, electors = 115 **

May 2, 2011: Spanish Cardinal Priest Agustín García-Gasco Vicente Dies on May 1, 2011. ** College at 198, electors = 115 **

April 19, 2011: Italian Cardinal Priest Giovanni Saldarini Dies on April 18, 2011 aged 86. ** College at 199, electors = 115 **

April 11, 2011: Italian Cardinal Priest Sergio Sebastiani Turns 80 and ceases to be an elector. ** College at 200, electors = 115 **

April 1, 2011: Indian Cardinal Priest Varkey Vithayathil Dies. FIRST death of 2011. ** College at 200, electors = 116 **

March 4, 2011: US Cardinal Priest William Henry Keeler turns 80 and ceases to be an elector. ** College continues at 201, electors = 116 **

February 27, 2011: [Resignation valid as of March 1, 2011] U.S. cardinal priest Roger Mahony retired from being Archbishop of L.A. on the very day he turned 75. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 26, 2011: 90 Year Old, Cardinal Patriarch Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir, Patriarch of Antiochia of the Maronites retires. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 24, 2011: German cardinal priest Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky retired from being Archbishop of Berlin on turning 75. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 21, 2011: 6 cardinal deacons created in 2001 receive jus optionis promotion to cardinal priests. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 19, 2011: Italian Cardinal Carmillo Runi ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 12, 2011: Spanish Cardinal Agustín García-Gasco Vicente ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 118 **

February 10, 2011: Ukrainian Cardinal, Lubomyr Husar retired. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 119 **

February 6, 2011: Filipino Cardinal Ricardo Jamin Vidal ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 119 **

January 26, 2011: French Cardinal Bernard Panafieu ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 120 **

January 12, 2011: Brazilian Cardinal Geraldo Majella Agnelo Retires. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 121 **

January 4, 2011: Curial, Slovenian Cardinal Franc Rodé Retires. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 121 **

◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2011 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

December 15, 2010: Chilean Cardinal Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa Retires. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 121 **

December 2, 2010: 80 year old Italian cardinal priest, Michele Giordano dies. ** The College now at 201, electors = 121 **

November 22, 2010: 90 year old Spanish Cardinal Urbano Navarrete Cortés, S.J., dies. ** The College now at 202, electors = 121 **

November 20, 2010: Cardinal creating consistory at which 24 cardinals, 20 electors were created. ** The College now at 203, electors = 121 **

November 14, 2010: Latvian Cardinal Priest Jānis Pujats turned 80 and ceased to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179, electors = 101 **

October 15, 2010: Philippines Cardinal Priest Ricardo Jamin Vidal retires. But still an elector. ** The College continues at 179, electors = 102 **

October 15, 2010: Cameroon Cardinal Priest Christian Wyghan Tumi of Cameroon Turned 80 and thus ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors = 102 **

October 11, 2010: Italian Cardinal Priest Severino Poletto retires. But still an elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 103 (no change) **

October 7, 2010: Brazilian Cardinal Priest Cláudio Hummes, O.F. M. and German Cardinal Deacon Paul Josef Cordes retire. But are still electors. ** The College continues at 179; electors = 103 (no change) **

October 2, 2010: Guatemalan Cardinal Priset Rodolfo Quezada Toruño retires but is still an elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 103 (no change) **

September 26, 2010: Italian Cardinal Priest Michele Giordano turned 80, thus ceasing to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 103 **

September 18, 2010: Syrian, Oriental Rites Cardinal Bishop Ignace Moussa I Daoud turned 80, thus ceasing to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 104 **

September 6, 2010: Italian Cardinal Priest Salvatore De Giorgi turned 80, thus ceasing to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 105 **

August 30, 2010: French Cardinal Priest Paul Poupard turned 80 and ceased to be a cardinal elector. ** The College is still at 179; electors= 106 **

July 8, 2010: Colombian Cardinal Pedro Rubiano Sáenz retires as Archbishop of Bogotá. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 107 **

July 7, 2010: U.S. Cardinal Theodore Edgar McCarrick, on turning 80, ceased to be an elector. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 107 **

July 1, 2010: German Cardinal Walter Kasper, retires as the President, Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

June 30, 2010: Italian Cardinal Bishop Giovanni Battista Re, retires as the Prefect, Congregation for Bishops and is replaced by Canadian Cardinal Marc Ouellet, my #3 papabili from 2009. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

June 28, 2010: Indonesian Cardinal Jiulius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, retires as the Archbishop of Jakarta. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

June 19, 2010: Latvian Cardinal Janis Pujats, retires as the Archbishop of Riga. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

May 4, 2010: Italian Cardinal Luigi Poggi , at one time the archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church, died at the age of 92. ** The College now = 179; electors = 108 **

April 30, 2010: German Cardinal Paul Augustin Mayer, a Benedictine, died at the age of 98, twenty three days prior to turning 99. ** The College then = 180 **

April 16, 2010: Czechoslovakian Cardinal Tomáš Špidlík, a Jesuit, died at the age of 90. ** The College then = 181 **

March 31, 2010: Spanish Cardinal Julián Herranz Casado, Opus Dei, on turning 80 ceased to be an elector. We then had 108 electors. Julián Herranz Casado (b. March 31, 1930) of Spain, the retired President of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of the Legislative Texts and President of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia turned 80 and thus ceased to be an elector. Spain has 10 cardinals, but only half of them are now eligible to vote. That still gives them a slight edge in terms of real representation. With 5 out of the 108 electors, Spain would a 4.6% representation if there were to be a conclave anytime soon. However, in terms of the world population of Catholics, Spain only has about 3.9%. So they can’t really complain, even though they probably will. Brazil with 3 times more Catholics has one less elector. Mexico with nearly twice more also only has 4 electors. The electors within the College does not reflect the population distribution of the Catholics. The U.S. and Europe gets preferential representation. This needs to be fixed at some point. <<q.v. Pages 7 to 11 of ‘The Next Pope’ book (for free, of course) at Google Books.>> ** College then = 182 **

March 20, 2010: NZ Cardinal Thomas Stafford on turning 80 ceased to be an elector. We then had 109 electors. NZ no longer has a vote if there was to be a conclave. ‘Oceania,’ [i.e., the Pacific basin] now only has one elector, viz. Australian Cardinal George Pell (b. 1941) who was created a cardinal in 2005. It is just like the ‘old days.’ The October 1958 conclave that elected John XXIII (#262) was the first conclave attended by a cardinal from Oceania, Australia’s Norman Thomas Gilroy. <<q.v. Pages 116 & 261 of ‘The Next Pope’ (for free, of course) at Google Books.>> ** College then = 182 **

March 18, 2010: US Cardinal Adam Joseph Maida on turning 80 ceased to be an elector. We then had 110 electors. ** College then = 182 **

February 13, 2010: Cardinal Miloslav Vlk retired from being an Archbishop — but is still a bona fide elector. His resignation is per Code of Canon Law 401 § 1 requiring that diocesan bishops tender their resignation to the pope when they have completed their 75th year. ** College then = 182 **

January 27, 2010: Cardinal Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic on turning 80 became a non-elector. Canada has a total of 3 cardinals, two of whom are still electors; one of them, Cardinal Marc Ouellet a credible papabile. ** College then = 182 **

January 18, 2010: 76 year old Belgium Cardinal Godfried Danneels retired from being the Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels. This did not alter the elector/non-elector numbers or the size of the College. Just changes the statistics as to the ‘occupations’ of the cardinals. ** College then = 182 **

January 10, 2010: Cardinal Armand Gaétan Razafindratandra, of Madagascar, Archbishop Emeritus of Antananarivo, died unexpectedly having had a fall while taking a walk. He had turned 84 last August.
** College then = 182 **

December 31, 2009: Cardinal Cahal Brendan Daly, of Ireland, Archbishop Emeritus of Armagh, died late in the day on Decmeber 31, 2009. He had turned 92 in October. ** College then = 183 **

December 30, 2009: Japanese Cardinal Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi, who had turned 81 this past June, died unexpectedly, in Tokyo. ** College then = 184 **

December 18, 2009: Cardinal Józef Glemp of Poland, created a cardinal by his compatriot in 1983, turned 80. He thus ceased to be an elector. That reduced the number of electors. ** College then = 185 **

November 17, 2009: Cardinal Christian Wiyghan Tumi of Cameroon, at 79, retired as the Archbishop of Douala. ** College then = 185 **

The Rationale for these Demographics

Following my “Next Pope — Papabili List for 2009,” I had some questions as to the amount of sway the curial cardinals would have at the next conclave. So I did some analysis on the composition of the current College beyond just age and nationalities. This is an ongoing effort to keep the data that I found up to-date. I also used these stats when writing my ‘The Next Pope – After Pope Benedict XVIbook.

Hope this helps. All the best.

Dutch Cardinal Adrianus Johannes Simonis Turns 80. College Remains at 193, Electors Down to 111

Anura Guruge, laughing, picture November 16, 2011.

by Anura Guruge

Cardinal Adrianus Johannes Simonis, now 80

Come 00:00, November 26, 2011, Rome time [+6 hours US Eastern time at present], Dutch Cardinal, Adrianus Johannes Simonis [dob: Nov. 26, 1931], turns 80 and thus ceases to be an elector. He was the Archbishop of Utrecht, the Netherlands, from December 1983 to April 2007 — when he retired six-months after hitting the nominal 75-year retirement age for diocesan archbishops. He was created a cardinal in May 1985.

With his ‘aging-out’, Netherlands one of the most secular, progressive and beguiling countries in the world, blessed with people golden both in heart and looks, ceases to have any electors. But, I doubt whether this will keep too many of the Dutch up at night agitating or petitioning the Vatican for representation.

The Kurhaus, Scheveningen, the Netherlands one of my favorite hotels in the world.

This was the second cardinal to turn 80 this month, the prior occurring on Nov. 4. This is the 9th cardinal to age out this year.

The College continues at 193. But, the electors are now down to 111.

The last time we were at 111 electors was on January 27, 2010.

We have lost 10 electors since the start of the year, but the College is still plenty big enough to elect the next pope.

We have had 12 cardinals retire in 2011.

The Next Pope 2011 book by Anura Guruge


As of November 26, 2011, there are 111 cardinal electors with 82 no longer able to participate in a conclave.
[The electors represent 58% of cardinals.]

**********
The College as of September 3, 2011 is at 193.


Please CLICK on image to ENLARGE.

Summary of Major Changes in the Last 12 Months

November 26, 2011: Dutch Cardinal Adrianus Johannes Simonis Turns 80.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 111 **

November 21, 2011: The Fugitive gets the boot. Now, finally retired.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 112 **

November 4, 2011: The Fugitive turns 80.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 112 **

October 13, 2011: 79-Year Old Filipino Cardinal Priest Gaudencio Borbon Rosales retires.
** College continues at 193, electors continue at 113 **

October 2, 2011: 76-Year Old Italian Cardinal Deacon Giovanni Lajolo Retires.
** College continues at 193, electors continue at 113 **

September 24, 2011: Zambian Cardinal Priest Medardo Joseph Mazombwe Turns 80.
** College continues at 193, electors down to 113 **

September 21, 2011: 76-year Old Italian Curial Cardinal Deacon Velasio De Paolis Retires from the Curia. ** College continues at 193, electors remain at 114 **

September 3, 2011: 87-year Old Polish Cardinal Priest Andrzej Maria Deskur Dies.
** College down to 193, electors 114 **

August 29, 2011: US Cardinal Deacon John Patrick Foley retires at 75.
** College continues at 194, electors 114 **

August 26, 2011: Canadian Cardinal Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic dies at the age of 81.
** College Down to 194, electors 114 **

July 25, 2011: Italian Cardinal Virgilio Noè Dies at the age of 89.
** College Down to 195, electors 114 **

July 21, 2011: Belarusian Cardinal Kazimierz Świątek Dies at the age of 96.
** College Down to 196, electors 114 **

July 19, 2011: US Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali Retires as Archbishop of Philadelphia.
** College continues at 197, electors 114 **

June 30, 2011: German Cardinal Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky dies, aged 75.
** College down to 197, electors = 114 **

June 28, 2011: Italian Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi retires as Archbishop of Milan at 77. ** College continues at 198, electors = 115 **

May 10, 2011: Indian Cardinal Priest Ivan Dias retires from the curia, at 75. ** College continues at 198, electors = 115 **

May 2, 2011: Spanish Cardinal Priest Agustín García-Gasco Vicente Dies on May 1, 2011. ** College at 198, electors = 115 **

April 19, 2011: Italian Cardinal Priest Giovanni Saldarini Dies on April 18, 2011 aged 86. ** College at 199, electors = 115 **

April 11, 2011: Italian Cardinal Priest Sergio Sebastiani Turns 80 and ceases to be an elector. ** College at 200, electors = 115 **

April 1, 2011: Indian Cardinal Priest Varkey Vithayathil Dies. FIRST death of 2011. ** College at 200, electors = 116 **

March 4, 2011: US Cardinal Priest William Henry Keeler turns 80 and ceases to be an elector. ** College continues at 201, electors = 116 **

February 27, 2011: [Resignation valid as of March 1, 2011] U.S. cardinal priest Roger Mahony retired from being Archbishop of L.A. on the very day he turned 75. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 26, 2011: 90 Year Old, Cardinal Patriarch Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir, Patriarch of Antiochia of the Maronites retires. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 24, 2011: German cardinal priest Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky retired from being Archbishop of Berlin on turning 75. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 21, 2011: 6 cardinal deacons created in 2001 receive jus optionis promotion to cardinal priests. ** College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 19, 2011: Italian Cardinal Carmillo Runi ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 117 **

February 12, 2011: Spanish Cardinal Agustín García-Gasco Vicente ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 118 **

February 10, 2011: Ukrainian Cardinal, Lubomyr Husar retired. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 119 **

February 6, 2011: Filipino Cardinal Ricardo Jamin Vidal ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 119 **

January 26, 2011: French Cardinal Bernard Panafieu ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 120 **

January 12, 2011: Brazilian Cardinal Geraldo Majella Agnelo Retires. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 121 **

January 4, 2011: Curial, Slovenian Cardinal Franc Rodé Retires. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 121 **

◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2011 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

December 15, 2010: Chilean Cardinal Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa Retires. ** The College continues at 201, electors = 121 **

December 2, 2010: 80 year old Italian cardinal priest, Michele Giordano dies. ** The College now at 201, electors = 121 **

November 22, 2010: 90 year old Spanish Cardinal Urbano Navarrete Cortés, S.J., dies. ** The College now at 202, electors = 121 **

November 20, 2010: Cardinal creating consistory at which 24 cardinals, 20 electors were created. ** The College now at 203, electors = 121 **

November 14, 2010: Latvian Cardinal Priest Jānis Pujats turned 80 and ceased to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179, electors = 101 **

October 15, 2010: Philippines Cardinal Priest Ricardo Jamin Vidal retires. But still an elector. ** The College continues at 179, electors = 102 **

October 15, 2010: Cameroon Cardinal Priest Christian Wyghan Tumi of Cameroon Turned 80 and thus ceased to be an elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors = 102 **

October 11, 2010: Italian Cardinal Priest Severino Poletto retires. But still an elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 103 (no change) **

October 7, 2010: Brazilian Cardinal Priest Cláudio Hummes, O.F. M. and German Cardinal Deacon Paul Josef Cordes retire. But are still electors. ** The College continues at 179; electors = 103 (no change) **

October 2, 2010: Guatemalan Cardinal Priset Rodolfo Quezada Toruño retires but is still an elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 103 (no change) **

September 26, 2010: Italian Cardinal Priest Michele Giordano turned 80, thus ceasing to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 103 **

September 18, 2010: Syrian, Oriental Rites Cardinal Bishop Ignace Moussa I Daoud turned 80, thus ceasing to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 104 **

September 6, 2010: Italian Cardinal Priest Salvatore De Giorgi turned 80, thus ceasing to be a cardinal elector. ** The College continues at 179; electors= 105 **

August 30, 2010: French Cardinal Priest Paul Poupard turned 80 and ceased to be a cardinal elector. ** The College is still at 179; electors= 106 **

July 8, 2010: Colombian Cardinal Pedro Rubiano Sáenz retires as Archbishop of Bogotá. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 107 **

July 7, 2010: U.S. Cardinal Theodore Edgar McCarrick, on turning 80, ceased to be an elector. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 107 **

July 1, 2010: German Cardinal Walter Kasper, retires as the President, Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

June 30, 2010: Italian Cardinal Bishop Giovanni Battista Re, retires as the Prefect, Congregation for Bishops and is replaced by Canadian Cardinal Marc Ouellet, my #3 papabili from 2009. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

June 28, 2010: Indonesian Cardinal Jiulius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, retires as the Archbishop of Jakarta. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

June 19, 2010: Latvian Cardinal Janis Pujats, retires as the Archbishop of Riga. ** The College is still at = 179; electors = 108 **

May 4, 2010: Italian Cardinal Luigi Poggi , at one time the archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church, died at the age of 92. ** The College now = 179; electors = 108 **

April 30, 2010: German Cardinal Paul Augustin Mayer, a Benedictine, died at the age of 98, twenty three days prior to turning 99. ** The College then = 180 **

April 16, 2010: Czechoslovakian Cardinal Tomáš Špidlík, a Jesuit, died at the age of 90. ** The College then = 181 **

March 31, 2010: Spanish Cardinal Julián Herranz Casado, Opus Dei, on turning 80 ceased to be an elector. We then had 108 electors. Julián Herranz Casado (b. March 31, 1930) of Spain, the retired President of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of the Legislative Texts and President of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia turned 80 and thus ceased to be an elector. Spain has 10 cardinals, but only half of them are now eligible to vote. That still gives them a slight edge in terms of real representation. With 5 out of the 108 electors, Spain would a 4.6% representation if there were to be a conclave anytime soon. However, in terms of the world population of Catholics, Spain only has about 3.9%. So they can’t really complain, even though they probably will. Brazil with 3 times more Catholics has one less elector. Mexico with nearly twice more also only has 4 electors. The electors within the College does not reflect the population distribution of the Catholics. The U.S. and Europe gets preferential representation. This needs to be fixed at some point. <<q.v. Pages 7 to 11 of ‘The Next Pope’ book (for free, of course) at Google Books.>> ** College then = 182 **

March 20, 2010: NZ Cardinal Thomas Stafford on turning 80 ceased to be an elector. We then had 109 electors. NZ no longer has a vote if there was to be a conclave. ‘Oceania,’ [i.e., the Pacific basin] now only has one elector, viz. Australian Cardinal George Pell (b. 1941) who was created a cardinal in 2005. It is just like the ‘old days.’ The October 1958 conclave that elected John XXIII (#262) was the first conclave attended by a cardinal from Oceania, Australia’s Norman Thomas Gilroy. <<q.v. Pages 116 & 261 of ‘The Next Pope’ (for free, of course) at Google Books.>> ** College then = 182 **

March 18, 2010: US Cardinal Adam Joseph Maida on turning 80 ceased to be an elector. We then had 110 electors. ** College then = 182 **

February 13, 2010: Cardinal Miloslav Vlk retired from being an Archbishop — but is still a bona fide elector. His resignation is per Code of Canon Law 401 § 1 requiring that diocesan bishops tender their resignation to the pope when they have completed their 75th year. ** College then = 182 **

January 27, 2010: Cardinal Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic on turning 80 became a non-elector. Canada has a total of 3 cardinals, two of whom are still electors; one of them, Cardinal Marc Ouellet a credible papabile. ** College then = 182 **

January 18, 2010: 76 year old Belgium Cardinal Godfried Danneels retired from being the Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels. This did not alter the elector/non-elector numbers or the size of the College. Just changes the statistics as to the ‘occupations’ of the cardinals. ** College then = 182 **

January 10, 2010: Cardinal Armand Gaétan Razafindratandra, of Madagascar, Archbishop Emeritus of Antananarivo, died unexpectedly having had a fall while taking a walk. He had turned 84 last August.
** College then = 182 **

December 31, 2009: Cardinal Cahal Brendan Daly, of Ireland, Archbishop Emeritus of Armagh, died late in the day on Decmeber 31, 2009. He had turned 92 in October. ** College then = 183 **

December 30, 2009: Japanese Cardinal Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi, who had turned 81 this past June, died unexpectedly, in Tokyo. ** College then = 184 **

December 18, 2009: Cardinal Józef Glemp of Poland, created a cardinal by his compatriot in 1983, turned 80. He thus ceased to be an elector. That reduced the number of electors. ** College then = 185 **

November 17, 2009: Cardinal Christian Wiyghan Tumi of Cameroon, at 79, retired as the Archbishop of Douala. ** College then = 185 **

The Rationale for these Demographics

Following my “Next Pope — Papabili List for 2009,” I had some questions as to the amount of sway the curial cardinals would have at the next conclave. So I did some analysis on the composition of the current College beyond just age and nationalities. This is an ongoing effort to keep the data that I found up to-date. I also used these stats when writing my ‘The Next Pope – After Pope Benedict XVIbook.

Hope this helps. All the best.

The Next Conclave — Those That Will Officiate

by Anura Guruge

Four Related Articles: 1. Over 80 Rule 2. Dean may be excluded
3. Camerlengo and The Major Penitentiary

4. Precedence Among Cardinal Bishops

This is the fourth (and hopefully last) article in a series about those that can participate in the next conclave — promoted by the London Times howler on May 10, 2010 that talked about Cardinal Sodano, as the Dean, attending the next conclave — though he is already 82, and thus two years over the mandatory, inviolable 80 year cut-off for conclave participation.

Please refer to the three articles referenced above for more details on conclave participating, role delegation and rules of precedence.

This is the list of the ‘Officers,’ both cardinals and non-cardinals, that will officiate at the next conclave (if it were to be held in the ‘near’ future with 80 denoting 80-year cut-off.]

CARDINALS:
1. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. 80, NOT-deputizable.
College of Cardinals will have to elect a new, but interim, Camerlengo.
—-current: Italian Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone [b. Dec. 2, 1934], 75.
Can participate and do so for the next 5 years.

2. Dean of the College of Cardinals. 80, Deputizable by Vice-Dean
(or next most senior Cardinal Bishop)
—-current: Italian Cardinal Angelo Sodano [b. Nov. 23, 1927], 82.
Cannot participate.

3. Vice Dean of the College of Cardinals. 80, Deputizable by senior most Cardinal Bishop present
—-current: French Cardinal Roger
Etchegaray [b. Sep. 25, 1922], 87.
Cannot participate.

4. Senior most Cardinal Bishop (after Vice-Dean). 80, Deputizable by next in line per precedence … even if it is the senior most Cardinal Priest present
—-current: Italian Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re
[b. Jan. 30, 1934], 76.
Can participate and do so for the next 4 years.
[Earlier confusion as to whether Cardinal Re actually was the most senior had to do with a hitherto undetected translation error in the 1914 Catholic Encyclopedia! Please read << this >>]

5. Senior most Cardinal Priest. 80, Deputizable by next in line per precedence within the order of Cardinal Priests
[in contrast to the case with Cardinal Bishops, it is impossible to envisage a conclave with no Cardinal Priests.]

—-current: Brazilian Cardinal Eugênio de Araújo Sales [b. Nov. 8, 1920], 89.
Cannot participate.

At present the senior most Cardinal Priest under 80 is Belgium Cardinal Godfried Danneels [b. June 4, 1933]. << Thanks Marko >>

6. Senior most Cardinal Deacon. 80, Deputizable by next in line per precedence within the order of Cardinal Deacons
[though improbable, in theory, it would be possible to have a conclave with no Cardinal Deacons in attendance. If this ever happened, the junior most cardinal priest would have to perform the roles expected of the senior most Cardinal Deacon]

—-current: Italian Cardinal Agostino Cacciavillan [b. Aug. 4, 1926], 83.
Cannot participate.

At present the senior most Cardinal Deacon under 80 is Italian Cardinal Sergio Sebastiani [b. Apr. 11, 1931].  << Thanks Marko >>
—-


MAJOR PENITENTIARY
Is not always a cardinal — as is the case right now. Not permitted within the conclave unless he is an under-80 cardinal.
If post is vacant prior to or if the incumbent dies during the sede vacante the College of Cardinals via a secret ballot will elect one of their own as the interim Major Penitentiary. It does not stipulate that they have to elect one who is under-80. If the incumbent dies during the conclave, the cardinal electors, in conclave, will, most likely, elect one of their own as the stand-in.

1. Major Penitentiary.
80, NOT-Deputizable. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Archbishop Fortunato Baldelli
[b. Aug. 6, 1935].
Cannot participate since he is NOT a cardinal.
—–


VICARS GENERAL & CARDINAL ARCHPRIEST, VATICAN BASILICA
The Cardinal Vicar General of Rome, the Cardinal Vicar General for Vatican City and the Cardinal Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica retain their posts during the sede vacante.
Upon being notified by the Camerlengo, the Cardinal Vicar General of Rome has the responsibility of informing the people of Rome as to the
sede vacante.
None of these three, however, have any specific duties to perform within a conclave.
If there is no Vicar General of Rome during the
sede vacante his duties will automatically be performed by the Vice-Vicar, i.e., the Vicegerent. If there is no Vicegerent, then the senior most auxiliary bishop of Rome steps in.
The Apostolic Constitution, Universi Dominici Gregis, does not specify what needs to be done if there is no Vicar General for Vatican City or a Cardinal Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. One assumes that a non-cardinal deputy will do the needful until a replacement is appointed by the new pope.

The pope can appoint non-cardinals to all three of these posts. Vicar General of Vatican City may also be Archpriest of the Basilica.

1. Vicar General of Rome. 80, Deputizable from within the see of Rome. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Cardinal Agostino Vallini [b. Apr. 17, 1940]. 70

Can participate and do so for the next ten years.

2. Vicar General for Vatican City. 80, Deputizable from within the Vatican City hierarchy. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Cardinal Angelo Comastri
[b. Sep. 14, 1943], 66.
Can participate and do so for the next fourteen years.

3. Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. 80, Deputizable from within the Vatican City or Basilica hierarchy. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Cardinal Angelo Comastri [b. Sep. 14, 1943], 66. << same as above >>
Can participate and do so for the next fourteen years.


NON-CARDINALS

These officials are required to participate within the conclave, BUT since they are not cardinals they cannot vote nor be in the Sistine Chapel when ballots are being cast.
Since they are not cardinals, and as such non-electors, their age is immaterial.


1. Secretary of the College of Cardinals. If needed, a temporary deputy will be appointed by the College, if needed
—-current: Italian Archbishop Manuel Monteiro de Castro
.
Cannot cast any votes or be in the Sistine Chapel when the electors are voting.

2. Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations. If needed, a temporary deputy will be appointed by the College, most likely from within the Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff
—-current: Italian Monsignor Guido Marini
.
[He is not related to his predecessor, Piero Marini who held this post from 1997 to 2007]

Cannot cast any votes or be in the Sistine Chapel when the electors are voting.


There are a few others that attend, such as two Masters of Ceremonies, an assistant to the ‘Dean,’ a contingent of Confessors etc., but these are not ‘officers’ per se and are chosen prior to the conclave. Thus their names are not known ahead of a conclave.