Tag Archives: cardinal deacon

Portuguese Cardinal Bishop José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F. Turns 80; College Continues At 192, Electors Down To 108

Anura Guruge, laughing, picture November 16, 2011.

Cardinal Bishop Jose Saraiva Martins ceases to be an elector

by Anura Guruge

On Friday, January 6, 2012, Portuguese Cardinal Bishop José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F., turned 80 and thus ceased to be a cardinal elector.

He was the Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints from May 1998 until July 2008, when, at 76, he retired per the nominal ’75-year’ retirement requirement in Canon 354 of the 1983 Code. He was created a cardinal deacon in February 2001. In February 2009 he was promoted to a cardinal bishop.

He becomes the first cardinal to age out in 2012.

The College continues 192, but the electors are now down to 108.

The Next Pope 2011 book by Anura Guruge


As of January 6, 2012, there are 108 cardinal electors with 84 no longer able to participate in a conclave.
[The electors represent 56% of cardinals.]

**********
The College as of January 6, 2012 is at 192.


Please CLICK on image to ENLARGE.

Summary of Major Changes in the Last 12 Months

January 6, 2012: 80-Year old Portuguese Cardinal Bishop José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F. ceased to be a cardinal elector.
** College continues at 192, electors down to 108 **

January 5, 2012: 76-Year old Italian Cardinal Deacon Fortunato Baldelli retires as Major Penitentiary.
** College continues at 192, electors continue at 109 **

◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2012 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

Changes to the College in 2011. Click image for post.

◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2011 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

Refer to this post for changes in 2010 and 2009.

Major Penitentiary, Cardinal Fortunato Baldelli, 76, Retires; College Continues At 192, Electors Remain At 109

Anura Guruge, laughing, picture November 16, 2011.

Cardinal Fortunato Baldelli, ex-Major Penitentiary

by Anura Guruge

On Thursday, January 5, 2012, Pope Benedict XVI (#266) accepted the resignation, from the post of Major Penitentiary, of 76-year old Italian Cardinal Deacon Fortunato Baldelli [dob: Aug. 6, 1935]. He, a career curialist and nuncio, had been the Major Penitentiary since June 2, 2009. He was created at the last cardinal creating consistory on November 20, 2010. His retirement would have been per the 75-year retirement age specified in Canon 354 of the 1983 Code, the Major Penitentiary being the head of the curial, Apostolic Penitentiary.

The new M. P. is Portuguese  Archbishop Manuel Monteiro de Castro who until today was the Secretary of the Congregation for Bishops and as such also the Secretary of the College of Cardinals.

Cardinal Baldelli’s retirement being accepted by the pope at 76 is not untoward. The prior M.P., the American Stafford also retired at 76. The American Wakefield Baum, who was the prior Cardinal M.P. (with an intervening non-cardinal M.P.) retired the day after his 75th birthday. The cardinal prior to that, Italian Dadaglio, also called it quits at 75. So I would not read anything into this ‘early’ retirement.

This retirement only changes the employment statistics of the College. Baldelli, at 76, continues as an elector.

The College continues 192, and the electors remain at 109.

The Next Pope 2011 book by Anura Guruge


As of January 5, 2012, there are 109 cardinal electors with 83 no longer able to participate in a conclave.
[The electors represent 57% of cardinals.]

**********
The College as of January 5, 2012 is at 192.


Please CLICK on image to ENLARGE.

Summary of Major Changes in the Last 12 Months

January 5, 2012: 76-Year old Italian Cardinal Deacon Fortunato Baldelli retires as Major Penitentiary.
** College continues at 192, electors continue at 109 **

◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2012 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

Changes to the College in 2011. Click image for post.

◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2011 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

Refer to this post for changes in 2010 and 2009.

76-Year Old Italian Cardinal Deacon Giovanni Lajolo to Retire as of October 1, 2011

by Anura Guruge

Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo [dob: January 3, 1965], the current President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and of the Governorate of Vatican City, turned 75 year last January. Per Canon 354 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, he as a curial head would have had to tender his resignation at that point — 75 being the nominal retirement age for both curial and pastoral cardinals. When the pope accepts these resignations is totally up to the pope’s discretion — and acceptances of such resignations [i.e., start of retirement] is not usually announced by the Vatican until a replacement is ready to be named.

Today, the Vatican Information Service (VIS) bulletin had this to say: “(The pope) Accepted the resignation, with effect from 1 October, from the office of president of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and of the Governorate of Vatican City State presented by Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo, upon having reached the age limit.”

The way I read this is that Lajolo is not ’emeritus’ until October 1.

So I will not update the College of Cardinals stats since as far as I can see nothing has changed. So this is but a heads-up for October 1.

Habemus Papam (We Have a Pope), Changes To Way Name Is Announced by Father Anthony

Cardinal Jorge Medina Estevez, in 2005, announces Habemus Papam.
Cardinal Jorge Medina Estevez, in 2005, announces Habemus Papam. Click for RECORDING

Habemus Papam (We have a pope), from which this blog gets its name, is the time honored announcement (at least as of the 15th century, but probably earlier), that a new pope has been elected. These days, it is made by the senior most cardinal deacon from the central balcony of St. Peter’s Basilica to the world, but in particular to the crowds gathered in the square below — once the news of the white smoke has spread.

The announcement, always in Latin, is as follows:
Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum:
Habemus Papam!
Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum Dominum,
Dominum [[First Name of the one elected pope]],
Sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ Cardinalem [[Last Name of the one elected pope]],
Qui sibi nomen imposuit [[Latin Regnal Name by which the pope wishes to be known]].


The English translation is:
I announce to you a great joy:
We have a Pope!
The most eminent and most reverend Lord,
Lord [[First Name of the one elected pope]],
Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church [[Last Name of the one elected pope]],
Who takes to himself the name of [[Latin Regnal Name by which the pope wishes to be known]].


Wikipedia, from which I got the above words has a decent article, including a statement as to how the Regnal Name is articulated.

Father Anthony, from the UK, a Catholic Priest who participated in the Mass following Paul VI‘s (#263) 1975 consistory and also plans to be at the November 20, 2010 consistory, send me this e-mail clarifying how the way the name is stated has changed. In ‘The Next Pope‘ book, on page 206-207, when talking about Habemus Papam, I was not specific about the possible different Latin ‘cases.’ I just listed the Regnal Names — in what I think Father Anthony, who has a Licentiate in Sacred Theology (S.T.L) from Rome from the 1970s, refers to as the accusative case!


So, Father Anthony, has this to say, which I found fascinating:

Just one little point ( highly pedantic !) When the Proto-Deacon announces the name of the new Pope there has been a change since 1978.

in 1963: …. qui sibi nomen imposuit Paulum Sextum ( accusative case )
This was also used, as far as I am aware for his predecessors, e.g. Joannem Vigesimum Tertium, Pium Duodecimum etc.

In August 1978:  Cardinal Felici ( a distinguished Latinist ) used: …… qui sibi nomen imposuit Joannis Pauli Primi (genetive case).

In October 1978  The same Cardinal Felici used: …. qui sibi nomen imposuit Joannis Pauli. (I think but am not sure without the numeral “Secundi”. [Note from Anura: While ‘Primi‘ in August was indeed a ‘first,’ as I talk about in my first book,  John Paul II was indeed the ‘second’ and should have been identified as such … in the same way the ordinals of Paul VI, John XXIII and Pius XII were stated] )

I was in the Piazza that night!

In 2005 Cardinal Medina Estivez used: …. qui sibi nomen imposuit Benedicti Decimi Sexti [click on photo at top to see a video of the announcement from YouTube]

It doesn’t much matter perhaps. It is a quite correct use of Latin, as far as I am aware, but if you listen to recordings you will be able to confirm the above. [check YouTube]

Non-Bishop Cardinals; i.e., The Current Cardinals Who Are Not Bishops

As of April 15, 1962, per John XXIII’s (#262) Cum gravissima motu proprio, all cardinals are required to be consecrated as bishops (unless an explicit exception is granted by the

Cardinal Roberto Tucci, a Non-Bishop Cardinal. (Image from cattoliciromani.com, with thanks.)

pope, typically on the grounds of advanced age; i.e., approaching or over 80).

This requirement for episcopal consecration is now embodied in Canon 351 §1 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law.

Since this requirement went into effect, as of 1962, about eleven cardinals were granted exceptions. Of these, American Cardinal Deacon Avery Dulles,  a Jesuit, created in 2001, who died on December 12, 2008, age 90, probably been the best known. Czechoslovakian Cardinal Tomáš Špidlík, another Jesuit, who died on April 16, 2010, also at 90 was another. He was created a cardinal deacon in 2003.

The current cardinals who are not bishops are:

1. Italian Cardinal Deacon Roberto Tucci, a Jesuit, a one time Director General of Radio Vatican, created on February 21, 2001, two months ahead of his 8oth birthday.

2. French Cardinal Deacon Albert Vanhoye, a Jesuit and academic, created on March 24, 2006, at the age of 82.

3. Spanish Cardinal Deacon Urbano Navarrete Cortés, also another Jesuit and academic, created on November 24, 2007, at the age of 87.

Anura Guruge
Publisher, Popes and Papacy

The Next Conclave — Those That Will Officiate

by Anura Guruge

Four Related Articles: 1. Over 80 Rule 2. Dean may be excluded
3. Camerlengo and The Major Penitentiary

4. Precedence Among Cardinal Bishops

This is the fourth (and hopefully last) article in a series about those that can participate in the next conclave — promoted by the London Times howler on May 10, 2010 that talked about Cardinal Sodano, as the Dean, attending the next conclave — though he is already 82, and thus two years over the mandatory, inviolable 80 year cut-off for conclave participation.

Please refer to the three articles referenced above for more details on conclave participating, role delegation and rules of precedence.

This is the list of the ‘Officers,’ both cardinals and non-cardinals, that will officiate at the next conclave (if it were to be held in the ‘near’ future with 80 denoting 80-year cut-off.]

CARDINALS:
1. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. 80, NOT-deputizable.
College of Cardinals will have to elect a new, but interim, Camerlengo.
—-current: Italian Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone [b. Dec. 2, 1934], 75.
Can participate and do so for the next 5 years.

2. Dean of the College of Cardinals. 80, Deputizable by Vice-Dean
(or next most senior Cardinal Bishop)
—-current: Italian Cardinal Angelo Sodano [b. Nov. 23, 1927], 82.
Cannot participate.

3. Vice Dean of the College of Cardinals. 80, Deputizable by senior most Cardinal Bishop present
—-current: French Cardinal Roger
Etchegaray [b. Sep. 25, 1922], 87.
Cannot participate.

4. Senior most Cardinal Bishop (after Vice-Dean). 80, Deputizable by next in line per precedence … even if it is the senior most Cardinal Priest present
—-current: Italian Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re
[b. Jan. 30, 1934], 76.
Can participate and do so for the next 4 years.
[Earlier confusion as to whether Cardinal Re actually was the most senior had to do with a hitherto undetected translation error in the 1914 Catholic Encyclopedia! Please read << this >>]

5. Senior most Cardinal Priest. 80, Deputizable by next in line per precedence within the order of Cardinal Priests
[in contrast to the case with Cardinal Bishops, it is impossible to envisage a conclave with no Cardinal Priests.]

—-current: Brazilian Cardinal Eugênio de Araújo Sales [b. Nov. 8, 1920], 89.
Cannot participate.

At present the senior most Cardinal Priest under 80 is Belgium Cardinal Godfried Danneels [b. June 4, 1933]. << Thanks Marko >>

6. Senior most Cardinal Deacon. 80, Deputizable by next in line per precedence within the order of Cardinal Deacons
[though improbable, in theory, it would be possible to have a conclave with no Cardinal Deacons in attendance. If this ever happened, the junior most cardinal priest would have to perform the roles expected of the senior most Cardinal Deacon]

—-current: Italian Cardinal Agostino Cacciavillan [b. Aug. 4, 1926], 83.
Cannot participate.

At present the senior most Cardinal Deacon under 80 is Italian Cardinal Sergio Sebastiani [b. Apr. 11, 1931].  << Thanks Marko >>
—-


MAJOR PENITENTIARY
Is not always a cardinal — as is the case right now. Not permitted within the conclave unless he is an under-80 cardinal.
If post is vacant prior to or if the incumbent dies during the sede vacante the College of Cardinals via a secret ballot will elect one of their own as the interim Major Penitentiary. It does not stipulate that they have to elect one who is under-80. If the incumbent dies during the conclave, the cardinal electors, in conclave, will, most likely, elect one of their own as the stand-in.

1. Major Penitentiary.
80, NOT-Deputizable. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Archbishop Fortunato Baldelli
[b. Aug. 6, 1935].
Cannot participate since he is NOT a cardinal.
—–


VICARS GENERAL & CARDINAL ARCHPRIEST, VATICAN BASILICA
The Cardinal Vicar General of Rome, the Cardinal Vicar General for Vatican City and the Cardinal Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica retain their posts during the sede vacante.
Upon being notified by the Camerlengo, the Cardinal Vicar General of Rome has the responsibility of informing the people of Rome as to the
sede vacante.
None of these three, however, have any specific duties to perform within a conclave.
If there is no Vicar General of Rome during the
sede vacante his duties will automatically be performed by the Vice-Vicar, i.e., the Vicegerent. If there is no Vicegerent, then the senior most auxiliary bishop of Rome steps in.
The Apostolic Constitution, Universi Dominici Gregis, does not specify what needs to be done if there is no Vicar General for Vatican City or a Cardinal Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. One assumes that a non-cardinal deputy will do the needful until a replacement is appointed by the new pope.

The pope can appoint non-cardinals to all three of these posts. Vicar General of Vatican City may also be Archpriest of the Basilica.

1. Vicar General of Rome. 80, Deputizable from within the see of Rome. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Cardinal Agostino Vallini [b. Apr. 17, 1940]. 70

Can participate and do so for the next ten years.

2. Vicar General for Vatican City. 80, Deputizable from within the Vatican City hierarchy. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Cardinal Angelo Comastri
[b. Sep. 14, 1943], 66.
Can participate and do so for the next fourteen years.

3. Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. 80, Deputizable from within the Vatican City or Basilica hierarchy. Not required within conclave
—-current: Italian Cardinal Angelo Comastri [b. Sep. 14, 1943], 66. << same as above >>
Can participate and do so for the next fourteen years.


NON-CARDINALS

These officials are required to participate within the conclave, BUT since they are not cardinals they cannot vote nor be in the Sistine Chapel when ballots are being cast.
Since they are not cardinals, and as such non-electors, their age is immaterial.


1. Secretary of the College of Cardinals. If needed, a temporary deputy will be appointed by the College, if needed
—-current: Italian Archbishop Manuel Monteiro de Castro
.
Cannot cast any votes or be in the Sistine Chapel when the electors are voting.

2. Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations. If needed, a temporary deputy will be appointed by the College, most likely from within the Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff
—-current: Italian Monsignor Guido Marini
.
[He is not related to his predecessor, Piero Marini who held this post from 1997 to 2007]

Cannot cast any votes or be in the Sistine Chapel when the electors are voting.


There are a few others that attend, such as two Masters of Ceremonies, an assistant to the ‘Dean,’ a contingent of Confessors etc., but these are not ‘officers’ per se and are chosen prior to the conclave. Thus their names are not known ahead of a conclave.

The Next Conclve — Implications Of The You Have To Be Under 80 Rule

by Anura Guruge

RELATED ARTICLE < please refer >

The recent fallacy in the London Times (Online) that the 82-year old Cardinal Sodano,  the Dean of the College of Cardinals, will be at the next conclave highlighted that conclave protocol is a mystery to most. I addressed the errors in the Times statement in this May 10 post.

Cardinal Sodano, despite being the Dean, will not be able to attend the conclave because he is over 80 and therefore automatically and inexorably excluded from being a papal elector (and thus being able to participate in a conclave).

Nothing, whether it be title, office or seniority, takes precedence over the 80 year cut-off rule for papal electors implemented by Paul VI (#263) in 1970 with his Ingravescentem aetatem motu proprio.

Thus, if the Dean of the College of Cardinals has reached his eightieth birthday prior to the start of the sede vacante he will not be permitted to participate in the sequestered conclave. There are no ifs and buts. A Dean who is over 80 cannot participate in a conclave. PERIOD.

As I point out in my earlier posting this happened in both the 1978 conclaves — the first to be held since the 80 year cut-off came into play.

The same applies to the Vice-Dean. He can only attend if he is under 80. In 1978, the Vice-Dean, again on both occasions could not attend.

[In 1965 Paul VI had also changed the mechanism as to who would be the Dean and Vice-Dean. Previously it had been based on seniority within the College, the Senior most automatically becoming Dean or Vice-Dean when these posts became vacant. As of 1965 the Cardinal Bishops would elect one from within their ranks, independent of seniority — albeit subject to the pope approving the selection.]

Not having the Dean or the Vice-Dean in attendance at a conclave is not even an inconvenience, let alone an impediment.

If the Dean is not present, the Vice-Dean will deputize for him. If they are both not present, the senior most Cardinal Bishop will act as the surrogate for the Dean. Please refer my earlier posting for the list of functions performed by the Dean (or his deputy).

[In theory it is possible to envisage a conclave with no Cardinal Bishops in attendance, due to age and illness — given that there can only be 9 Cardinal Bishops per the current framework. If that were to happen the senior most Cardinal Priest will become the de facto Dean. This is the beauty of precedence within the College. Again Please refer my earlier posting so I do not have to repeat myself here. Better still, read page 125 to 127 of ‘The Next Pope‘ on Google Books or Amazon.]

The senior most cardinal deacon is a busy beaver during the conclave. He has to pick names, he has to man the door, he has to summon non-cardinals, he has to make the Habemus Papam announcement etc.

But as with the Dean and Vice-Dean, if the senior most cardinal deacon of the College is unable to attend the conclave, then the senior most cardinal deacon present automatically performs all the duties without comment.

If a new pope has not been elected after the fourth day of the conclave, there is per Universi Dominici Gregis ‘time-out’ stipulations a brief hiatus followed by a spiritual exhortation by the senior most cardinal priest present. And that basically is the MO when it comes to conclave protocol. Precedence, precedence, precedence with the senior most present doing the honors — with BUT one, unique, exception. That being the Camerlengo. If the existing Camerlengo cannot attend the conclave (or becomes incapacitated during the conclave), the College of Cardinals will have to elect a new one prior to (or during) the conclave via a secret ballot — with the person getting the most votes, irrespective of majority, becoming the new Camerlengo. The Dean (or his deputy) will stand-in for the Camerlengo while the new one is being elected.

Another two posting to follow.