Tag Archives: electors

Swiss Cardinal Georges Marie Martin Cottier, O.P. Dies; Electors = 116, College of Cardinals = 215.

.by Anura Guruge


Cardinal_CottierName: Georges Marie Martin Cottier, O.P.

Nationality: Swiss

Date of Birth: 25 Apr. 1922

Died: 31 Mar. 2016 (93)

Main post: Theologian to the Papal Household

Created: 21 Oct. 2003

First change to the college in 33 days.

Last cardinal to die was 112 days ago.


Born: Lausanne, Switzerland.


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College of Cardinals changes in 2016 Anura Guruge
Click to ENLARGE.

Changes to the College of Cardinals in 2016.


by Anura Guruge
Papal Historian & Author


U.S. Cardinal Roger Michael Mahony Turns 80; Electors = 116, College of Cardinals = 216

.by Anura Guruge


Cardinal_MahonyName: Roger Michael Mahony

Nationality: U.S.A.

Date of Birth: 27 Feb. 1936

Main post: Metropolitan Archbishop Emeritus of Los Angeles (U.S.A.)

Created: 28 June 1991

First change to the college in 79 days.

Last cardinal to turn 80 was 159 days ago.


Born: Hollywood area of Los Angeles. 

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by Anura Guruge
Papal Historian & Author


Two Cardinals, Terrazas Sandoval and Furno, Die One Day Apart; Electors = 117, College of Cardinals = 216

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by Anura Guruge


tn_terrazas_jpgName: Julio Terrazas Sandoval, C.SS.R.

Nationality: Bolivian

Date of Birth: 7 Mar. 1936 (79 years old at passing)

Died: 9 Dec. 2015

Main post: Bishop emeritus of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

Created: 21 February 2001

Last death of a cardinal was on October 24, 2015 — 46 days ago.


Born, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

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carlofurnoName: Carlo Furno

Nationality: Italian

Date of Birth: 2 Dec. 1921 (94 years old at passing)

Died: 10 Dec. 2015

Main post: Grand Master emeritus of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem

Created: 26 November 1994

Last death of a cardinal was on December 9, 2015 — 1 day ago.


Born, Bairo, Piedmont, Italy.

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Slovakian Cardinal Ján Chryzostom Korec, S.J. Died Oct. 24, 2015; Electors = 118, College of Cardinals = 218

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by Anura Guruge


korec_99063Name: Ján Chryzostom Korec, S.J.

Nationality: Slovakian

Date of Birth: 22 Jan. 1924 (91 years old at passing)

Main post: Bishop emeritus of Nitra

Created: 28 June 1991

Last death of a cardinal was on August 17, 2015 — 68 days ago.


Born, Bošany, Czechoslovakia


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Minimum Age To Be Pope: All Of Today’s Cardinals, Including Tagle, Plenty Old Enough.

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by Anura Guruge


Original ‘Minimum Age To Be Pope’ post (from 2009)


Today’s youngest cardinal is Mafi from Tonga, created in February 2015. He is 53 — turning 54 in December.

Mafi ALREADY is older than the ten youngest popes since 1400! Here is my list (from this 2010 post).

So Mafi, THE youngest, is plenty old enough to be a ‘modern’ pope.

That is basically the issue today when it comes to how young a pope could be. UNLESS the electors, for inescapable reasons, decide to go with a non-cardinal, any papabile is BOUND to be plenty old enough. Any under-80 cardinal, unless there is an explicit papal dispensation, has to be a Bishop to be created. You need to be 35 years old to be a bishop. 35 is plenty old enough.

So that is the deal. Here is a list, from my new Excel spreadsheet of the current crop of youngest cardinals.  A few of them, Lacroix, Tagle, Parolin, Erdö and Koch could be considered papabili. They are ALL plenty old enough. OK?

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Click to ENLARGE and study. Enjoy.

Barring Deaths NO Changes To The College OF Cardinals In The Next 5 Months.

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by Anura Guruge


The distribution of the birthdays of the cardinals, by and large, is arbitrary — though there have (and will be) a few instances where a prelate was created, when he was, because his birthdate ‘fitted in’ relative to the ’80-year’ cutoff. We just had two cardinals, Abril y CastellóDe Paolis, turn 80 within the space of two days. But prior to that the last cardinal to age out was 5 months earlier.

And we are going to see that again. The next cardinal to age out will be US Cardinal Roger Michael Mahony, on February 27, 2016. So that is the next scheduled change to the College — barring deaths.


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Click to ENLARGE and read. From my new Excel spreadsheet.

Spanish Cardinal Santos Abril y Castelló Turns 80; Electors = 118, College of Cardinals = 219

.by Anura Guruge


abrilycastelloName: Santos Abril y Castelló

Nationality: Spanish

Date of Birth: 21 Sep. 1935

Main post: Apostolic Nuncio

Created: 18 Feb 2912


Born: Alfambra, Spain

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by Anura Guruge
Papal Historian & Author


Italian Cardinal De Paolis Turns 80; Electors = 119, College of Cardinals = 219

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by Anura Guruge


depaolisName: Velasio De Paolis

Nationality: Italian

Date of Birth: 19 Sept. 1935

Main post: President Emeritus Prefecture for Economic Affairs

Created: 20 Nov. 2010


Born, Sonnino, Italy.

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College of Cardinals: Composition & Statistics, September 14, 2015

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by Anura Guruge


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After a 18 month hiatus I am back doing regular updates as to the status of the College of Cardinals, the electors, the non-electors and who is turning 80.

So it is back to the service I provided from 2010 to 2013 when it came to the College. I have a new Excel spreadsheet and the data shown here is extracted straight from it. So that is easier for me and eliminates transcription errors. Enjoy.



German Cardinal Priest ‘W.K’ Turns 80 But Remains An Elector. College = 207, Electors = 117, Non-Electors = 90.

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  by Anura Guruge


On Tuesday, March 5, 2013, the 5th full day of the 2013 sede vacante, the ex-curial German Cardinal Priest ‘W.K’ turned 80. But, he remains a cardinal elector since the 80-year cut off for voting in the upcoming conclave, per the norms, was the day PRIOR to the start of the sede vacante. The sede vacante started on February 28, 2013. So the cut-off was February 27. He was under 80 on that day. Those are the rules per Universi Dominici Gregis (UDG). Yes, John Paul II, quite astutely, changed the cut-off day. It used to be the day of the conclave. Per that rule the German cardinal would not have been an elector. But, John Paul II realized that the cardinals had the power to set the start of the conclave to be 15 to 20 full days from the start of the s.v. — it was that 5 day leeway that he was concerned about. The cardinals could have pushed back the start to 16, 17 or 20 days to make sure that one of their peers made the cut. John Paul II, who never climbed down from the cross, did not anticipate that any pope would be fickle enough to resign (though his UDG and Canon Law permits it). So, he kept on thinking that a s.v. would only happen when a pope died. Though we know that the time of death can be manipulated, by and large it is difficult to mess around with a pope’s death for much more than 24 hours. So, per John Paul II’s thinking, the start of a s.v. couldn’t really be manipulated — because he didn’t take into account weak popes that would throw up their hands and say: ‘this is way to hard for poor me. I quit‘. By setting the cut-off to the day before the s.v. he wanted to minimize the possibility of cardinals manipulating the eligibility. Ironically, Benedict XVI, foiled him. It is now very obvious that Benedict timed his resignation fully aware that his fellow German would get to take part in the conclave.

Next_Pope_2011_Front_Cover_158x197_jpegEqually you have to feel sorry for poor ol’ Cardinal Husar who turned 80 on February 26 — the day before the cut-off! That too was planned. He should feel slighted and offended. If Benedict had resigned on his birthday he would still have been eligible because he would have been 79 the day before.

So we will have a 80 year old cardinal elector at this conclave.

That was always a possibility and I had discussed it in detail in my ‘The Next Pope 2011‘ book.

Yes, it is a record.
The first time an over 80 elector has participated in a conclave
since the over-80 limitation which became law in January 1971.

This is the 8th change to the College in 2013.

Click to ENLARGE.
Click to ENLARGE.

The College is down to 207 (still quite high), with the electors at 117.

Cologne, World War II.

As of March 5, 2013, Electors = 117, Non-Electors = 90.
[The electors represent 57% of cardinals.]

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The College as of February 28, 2013 is at 207.


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Click to ENLARGE.

Summary of Major Changes in the Last 12 Months

March 5, 2013: German cardinal priest ‘W.K.’ turns 80 but remains an elector.
** College continues at 207, electors continue at 117 **

Feb 28, 2013: 92-Year Old French Cardinal Priest Jean Honoré Dies.
** College down to 207, electors continue at 117 **

Feb 26, 2013: Husar ages out. O’Brien retires.
** College at 208, electors down to 117 **

Feb 23, 2013: 92-Year Old Belgian Cardinal Deacon Julien Ries Dies.
** College down to 208, electors continue at 118 **


Feb 8, 2013: 94-Year Old Italian Cardinal Priest Giovanni Cheli Dies.

** College down to 209, electors continue at 118 **

Jan 26, 2013: Mexican Cardinal Deacon Cardinal Javier Lozano Barragán Turns 80.
** College at 210, electors down to 118 **

Jan 23, 2013: 83 Year Old Polish Cardinal Priest Józef Glemp Dies.
** College down to 210, electors continue at 119 **

Jan. 17, 2013: 77 Year Old Egyptian Cardinal Patriarch Antonios Naguib Retires.
** College continues at 211, electors continue at 119 **

◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2012 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

Changes to the College in 2012. Click image for post.

>> 78-year old Italian Francesco Monterisi also became emeritus, with no announcement, in December 2012.

 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2011 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

Changes to the College in 2011. Click image for post.

◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊ 2010 ◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊◊

Refer to this post for changes in 2010 and 2009.